In this lesson, we will cover the next topic of teaching aptitude that is Learner’s characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Teaching Aptitude) – Academic, Social, Emotional, and Cognitive.

Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional, and Cognitive) – Teaching Aptitude


1.Motivational Characteristics

    1. Self-efficacy: Bandura defines the term perceived self-efficacy as a belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the actions necessary to manage particular situations. Bandura also notes physiological and emotional states can influence individuals to interpret stress reactions and tension as indicator of vulnerability to poor Therefore one way to alter self-efficacy is to reduce stress and negative emotional tendencies. Those who believe they cannot manage threats experience high anxiety arousal. They view many aspects of their environment as fraught with danger (Bandura, 1993).
    2. Attribution Patterns: Attribution research focuses on the ways that individuals arrive at casual explanations of what takes place in their lives. Success and failure perceived as due to internal causes such as personality ability or effort respectively raises or lowers self-esteem or self worth, whereas external attributions for positive or negative outcomes do not influence feelings about one (Weiner, 1985)
    3. Goal Orientation:Mastery Orientation (Learning goal): Student’s are concerned with developing skills, knowledge, understanding.Performance Orientation ( Performance or ego goals): Student’s more concerned with the outcome (performance) than the process/learning.
    4. Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic Motivation: Individual is self-directed. Could be derived from a desire for academic success, knowledge, or working with positive self-esteem. Extrinsic Motivation: Individual is other directed. Could be a result of,
      • Parental influences: Parents hold academic success in high regard and have high expectations for the
      • Rewards: These could be monetary or material
      • Acknowledgment: Honor roll, or other academic awards, attention of other students/teacher.
      • Classroom privileges for positive academic performances: These could range from free time, time in organized centers, or other opportunities that students are not

2.      Multiple Intelligence Characteristics

Existential Intelligence: Students with existential intelligence are attuned to the human condition. They are able to comprehend issues like the significance of life and death and the experience of love:

Inter/Intrapersonal Intelligence: Interpersonallearners understand the mood and motivations of others enabling them to work and communicate effectively. They enjoy social activities. Intrapersonal learners have a deep awareness of their own inner feelings. They have a strong sense of independence and self-confidence.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Students who possess bodily-kinesthetic intelligence have the ability to work skillfully with objects involving both fine and gross motor skills. They are characterized by a well-developed sense of balance and motor control. In addition, they are skillful at translating intention into action. These students learn best by doing.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence: Spatial intelligence is characterized by a person’s capacity to perceive the visual world and recreate aspects of it even in the absence of relevant stimuli. This intelligence is fundamentally tied to the concrete world and the locations of objects in that,Play chess,Guess the mystery object inside a bag.

Musical/Naturalist Intelligence: No other intelligence emerges earlier than musical talent. Those who possess high levels of musical or rhythmic intelligence constantly hear tones, rhythms, and musical patterns in the environment and human voice, as well as music. The auditory sense is crucial, although not mandatory.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The logical-mathematical intelligence initially develops through observation, manipulation, and handling of physical objects. In time, the thinking becomes more abstract. This intelligence is closely related to scientific thinking and deductive reasoning.

Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence: The power and love of the written and spoken word is at the heart of this intelligence. Reading, writing, listening, and speaking are the activities that represent this intelligence

3.  Prior Knowledge:

Prior knowledge is the knowledge the learner already has before they meet new information. A learner’s understanding of a text can be improved by activating their prior knowledge before dealing with the text, and developing this habit is good learner training for them.

4.  Economic/Home Life

  • Proper nutrition before school
  • Appropriate/necessary school supplies
  • Parents’ ability to assist learner with academic/school related homework and
  • Parents’ involvement in a teacher/parent

5.  Values:

Our values are determined by the beliefs we hold which, in turn, will determine our behaviors. Beliefs are based on our worldview. One common worldview is naturalism; the idea that nothing exists outside of natural  laws. Transcendentalism is the belief that nature is god and god is whatever you want it to be. Theism is the belief in a god whom you hold some responsibility to. The way you interpret the world will significantly affect what you value. Your values will then determine how you behave.

6.  Emotional intelligence:

Emotional intelligence(EI) is the capability of individuals to recognize their own and other people’s emotions, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one’s goal(s)

7. Culture: the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a particular people

8.  Language

9. Social Skills: A social skill is any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal The process of learning these skills is called socialization.

10. Health: a person with good health learn


Good learners are:

  • Curious Creative
  • Resilient in the face of challenges Able to embrace change Adaptable
  • Collaborative
  • Open to diverse viewpoints and experiences Respectful of others
  • Respectful of the environment Compassionate
  • Optimistic Nurturing Challenge seeking
  • Engaged and enthusiastic
  • Future-oriented with a global perspective
  • Intrinsically motivated
  • Skills of Good learner
  • Solve complex problems
  • Make connections between present and future opportunities
  • Think critically, reflectively

Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional, and Cognitive)

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