Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance (Financial Accounting)

In this article, we will discuss the basic concepts of financial accounting i.e. journal, ledger, and trial balance as per financial accounting rules. In this topic, we also cover how to prepare journal, ledger, and trial balance with practical problems and solutions.

1. JOURNAL

Definition: In the accounting world, Journal refers to a book wherein transactions are logged for the very first time, and that is why it is also called as “Book of Original Entry“.In this financial accounting topic, in the book all the regular business transactions are entered sequentially, i.e. as an when they arise. After that, the transactions are posted to the Ledger, in the concerned accounts. When the transactions are recorded in the journal, they are called as Journal Entries.

As per Double Entry System of Book Keeping, every transaction affects two sides, i.e. debit and credit. So, the transactions are entered in the book as per the Golden Rules of Accounting, to know which account is to be debited and which one is to be credited.

Types of Journal

There are two types of the journal in financial accounting:

types of journal

  • General Journal: General Journal is one in which a small business entity records all the day to day business transactions
  • Special Journal: In the case of big business houses, the journal is classified into different books called as special journals. Transactions are recorded in these special journals on the basis of their nature. These books are also known as subsidiary books. It includes cash book, purchase day book, sales day book, bills receivable book, bills payable book, return inward book, return outward book and journal proper.The journal proper is used for entering infrequent transactions such as opening entries, closing entries and rectification entries.

Journalizing Process

The process of recording transactions in the journal is called Journalizing. The transactions are recorded in the journal in the manner of their occurrence along with a suitable explanation, called ‘Narration‘ which supports the entry.

The steps involved in the process of Journalizing in financial accounting are as under:

  1. Identification of Accounts: The first and foremost step in any given transaction is to identify the accounts which are being affected with it.
  2. Recognition of Account type: Once the accounts are identified, the type of account is ascertained, i.e. whether it is a personal account, real account or nominal account.
  3. Applying the golden rules of accounting: The rules of debit and credit, i.e. the golden rules of accounting are to be applied to the accounts which are affected by the transactions.

The debit and credit sides of the journal must be equal. There are some transactions in which you will find there are more than one debit for a single credit, more than one credit for a single debit or multiple debits and credits for an entry. Such entries are called as a compound journal entry. Nevertheless, the aggregate amount of debit and credit in an entry must tally.

Format of Journal

journal format

  • Date: In this column, we mention the date of the transaction along with the month in which the transaction took place. The year is indicated at the top only once and not repeated with every date.
  • Particulars: This column indicates the accounts which are affected, i.e. debited or credited, by the transaction. In the very first line, we write the account which is debited and then in the extreme right of the same line and column we write Dr. which indicates Debit.In the next line, after leaving some space, we write the account which is credited starting with the preposition ‘to’. A small narration for the respective transaction is given in the third line which explains the entry in the brackets, and it starts with the word ‘being’.
  • Voucher Number: In this column, we enter the number written on the voucher of the concerned transaction.
  • L.F. or Ledger Folio: As we know that transactions entered in the journal are then taken to the Ledger, in their respective accounts. In this column, the page number concerning the entry in the ledger is mentioned.
  • Dr. Amount: The amount to be debited for a particular entry is written in the same line, where the debited account is indicated.
  • Cr. Amount: The amount to be credited for a particular entry is written in the same line, where the concerned credited account is written.

All the columns are to be filled at the time of recording the transaction in the journal, except the ledger folio column which is filled when the transaction is posted to the ledger.

The journal entries may extend to multiple pages, and so both the two columns are totalled at the end of each page, with the word Total c/f, i.e. carried forward. Further, at the beginning of the next page, the amounts in debit and credit columns in the previous page is written with the words Total b/f, i.e. brought forward. Finally, on the last page of the entry, the Grand Total is written, and the columns are totaled.

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance (CONTINUE…)

Types of accounts

To understand the Golden Rules of Financial Accounting we must first understand the types of accounts.

There are three types of accounts:

  • Real Account
  • Personal Account
  • Nominal Account

Real Account is a general ledger account relating to Assets and Liabilities other than people accounts. These are accounts that don’t close at year-end and are carried forward.

Personal Account is a General ledger account connected to all persons like individuals, firms, and associations.

Nominal account is a General ledger account pertaining to all income, expenses, losses, and gains.

Golden rules of accounting

Looking at the nature of all the accounts,  the financial accounting rules have been devised. For each account, there is a set of Golden Rules and hence there are three Golden Rules of Accounting.

 

Journal, ledger, and Trial balance

Illustration

An entity named Orange Ltd. has the following financial accounting transactions.

  1. It deposits Rs.10,000 into Bank
  2. It buys goods worth Rs.50,000 from Apple Ltd.
  3. It sells goods worth Rs.35,000 to Melon  Ltd.
  4. It pays Rs.12,000 as Rent for its premises
  5. It earns Rs.3,000 as interest on bank account.

First of all,  let us identify the accounts involved in these transactions and classify them into the different types of accounts:

Transaction Accounts involved Type of Accounts
Deposit Rs.10,000 in Bank Bank Account
Cash Account
Real Account
Real Account
Purchase goods worth Rs.50,000 from Apple Ltd. Purchase Account
Apple Ltd. Account
Nominal Account
Personal Account
Sale of goods worth Rs. 35,000 to Melon Ltd. Sales Account
Melon Ltd. Account
Nominal Account
Personal Account
Pays Rs.12,000 as rent Rent Account
Bank Account
Nominal Account
Real Account
Earn Rs.3,000 as interest on Bank account Interest received
Bank Account
Nominal Account
Real Account

Now applying the golden rules of Financial Accounting to each of the transactions we will get the following journal entries :

  • Deposit Rs.10,000 in Bank

Both Bank and Cash are real accounts and so the Golden rule is:

  • Debit what comes into the business
  • Credit what goes out from the business

So the entry will be:

Bank A/C Dr. 10,000
    To Cash A/ C 10,000
  • Purchase goods worth Rs.50,000 from Apple Ltd.

The Purchase Account is a Nominal account and the Creditors Account is a Personal account.

Applying Golden Rule for Nominal account and Personal account:

  • Debit the expense or loss
  • Credit the giver

The entry will be:

Purchase A/C Dr 50,000
    To Apple Ltd. A/C 50,000
  • Sale of goods worth Rs.35,000 to Melon Ltd.

The sale account is a Nominal account and the Debtors Account is a Personal account.

Hence the Golden Rule to be applied is:

  • Debit the receiver
  • Credit the income or gain

Thus the entry will be:

Melon Ltd. A/C Dr 35,000
    To Sales A/C 35,000
  • Pays Rs.12,000 as rent

Rent is a Nominal account and Bank is a real account.

The Golden Rule to be applied is:

  • Debit the expense or loss
  • Credit what goes out of business

The entry thus will be:

Rent A/C Dr. 12000
    To Bank A/C 12000
  • Earn Rs.3,000 as interest on Bank Account

Interest and Bank are Nominal account and Real Account.

The Golden rule to be applied is:

  • Debit what comes into the business
  • Credit the income or gain

Hence the entry will be:

Bank A/C Dr 3,000
    To Interest Received A/C 3,000

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

2. LEDGER

Ledger

Definition: Ledger implies the principal books of accounts, wherein all accounts, i.e. personal, real and nominal are maintained. After recording the transactions in the journal, the transactions are classified and grouped as per their title, and so all the transactions of similar type into are put in a particular account.

Format of Ledger

A ledger account is T-shaped, having two sides, wherein the left part of the account represents the debit side, whereas the right part of the account, is the credit one. Both the sides consist of four columns, as you can see in the specimen below:
Journal, ledger, and Trial balance

Posting

When the debit and credit items are transferred from a journal to the specific ledger accounts, the process is called as Posting. The rules with respect to the ledger posting are discussed as under:

  • Individual accounts are to be opened in ledger books for each group, i.e. purchases, sales, cash etc. and the entries from the journal are posted to their account.
  • It should be kept in mind that the account name used in the ledger should be the same used in the journal.
  • In the date column, we enter the date of the transaction.
  • While posting the entries in the debit side, we add the prefix ‘To’ with the concerned accounts posted in the particulars column and the prefix ‘by’ is used with the accounts entered in the particulars column of the credit part.
  • When it comes to posting the entries, the accounts debited in the journal are to be debited in the ledger, however, reference is given to the concerned credit account.
  • The accounts are balanced at the end of each month or the financial year. And to do so both sides are totaled first and then the difference between the two sides is ascertained. This difference is called the balance, which is added to the side which falls short. When the credit side is greater than the debit side, it is called a credit balance which is indicated as ‘To balance c/d’.On the other hand, when the debit side is in excess of the credit side it is termed as debit balance, which is indicated as ‘By balance c/d’. Here, the word c/d refers to carried down. Similarly while opening the account for the next month or period. The balance on the debit balance is taken to the debit side as ‘To Balance b/d’ and vice versa. The word ‘b/d’ expands to brought down.
  • In the folio column, we will enter the page number of the journal from which entry is posted to the ledger.
  • The amount column is filled with the respective amount against the entry.

Subdivision of Ledger

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance (CONTINUE…)

The ledger in financial accounting is subdivided into two major categories:Journal, ledger, and Trial balance

  1. Personal Ledger: Personal Ledger, implies the ledger that records details of every transaction about the persons, concerned with the accounting unit.
    • Debtors Ledger: Debtors are the persons to whom goods are sold. So, it includes the accounts of individual trade debtors of the entity are covered in this category.
    • Creditors Ledger: Creditors are the persons or firm from whom we purchase the goods. So, it encompasses the accounts of individual trade creditors of the business enterprise.
  2. Impersonal Ledger: The ledger that records all the entries relating to assets, liabilities, incomes and Expenses. It is divided into two categories:
    • Cash Book: It is the book that contains all the cash and bank transactions.
    • General Ledger: The ledger in which all the entries with respect to real and nominal account are recorded. It is known as the general ledger. It is further divided into two categories:
      1. Nominal Ledger: The ledger accounts relating to incomes such as Sales A/c, Rent received A/c, Commission earned A/c, Interest received A/c, etc. and expenses such as Wages A/c, Salaries A/c, Purchases A/c, Electricity A/c. Rent Paid A/c, Commission Paid A/c, etc. are covered in this category.
      2. Private Ledger: The ledger in which entries concerned with assets and liabilities are entered is called Private Ledger.

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

3. TRIAL BALANCE

The statement which is prepared at a particular date with the ledger account balances to test the arithmetical accuracy of the ledger accounts and also to facilitate the preparation of financial statements is called a trial balance.

It is to be noted that trial balance is not an account; it is a mere statement.

A trial balance contains the columns – serial number of ledger accounts,

If a trial balance agrees i.e. a total of debit money column and a total of credit money column are equal, it proves that the ledger accounts are arithmetically accurate.

The famous writer R.N. Carter says;

A trial balance is a schedule or a list of balances both debit and credit extracted from the accounts in the ledger and including the cash and bank balances from the cash book.

According to J.R. Batliboi,

A trial balance may be defined as a statement of debit and credit balances extracted from the ledger with a view to testing the arithmetical accuracy of the books.

Characteristics of Trial Balance

It appears from the definitions of trial balance that the trial balance contains the following features;

  1. The trial balance is neither an account nor a part of it. It is a statement containing all balances of ledger accounts.
  2. It is not recorded in any book of account. The trial balance is prepared in a separate sheet of paper.
  3. The trial balance is prepared with the balances of accounts at the end of a particular accounting period. A trial balance is prepared before the preparation of financial statements at the end of the accounting period.
  4. The statement contains all kinds of accounts, irrespective of their classifications, such as assets liabilities, income-expenses, etc. It helps to test the arithmetical accuracy of accounts.

Objects of Trial Balance

Although trial balance is not an account, it is prepared to fulfill the following objects;

  • The main object of the trial balance is to prove the arithmetical accuracy of accounts.
  • It is prepared to check whether the debit and credit accounts of each transaction have been recorded properly.
  • For the convenient preparation of financial statements, the trial balance is prepared to bring debit and credit ledger balances together.
  • To proof the accurate balancing of a ledger account.
  • To detect mistakes in the process of accounts, if any.
  • To provide information to the proper authority in time.
  • To compare the balances of various ledger accounts of the current year with those of the previous year.

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

Why do both Sides of Trial Balance Agree

According to a double-entry system every transaction is recorded in a journal debiting one account and crediting the other for the same amount of money with an explanation.

At the time of posting of the transaction from journal to ledger debit account of the journal is debited in the same account and the credit account of the journal is credited in the same account in the ledger.

As a result, a total of the debit balance of ledger accounts becomes equal to the total credit balance of ledger accounts.

Therefore, According to double-entry principle;

If all correctly drawn ledger accord balance is recorded in trial balance in debit and credit money columns properly, the totals of both columns of trial balance become equal.

Preparing Trial Balance From Journal and Ledger (How To)

To prepare a trial balance, first, we need to know to make sure the transactions are journalized and have been posted to ledgers.

The final balance from the ledger needs to be properly placed on the debit and credit column while preparing the trial balance, to make sure the accounting process is correct.

How to Prepare a Trial Balance

Business transactions are first recorded in the journal and thereafter these are posted in the ledger under different heads of accounts.

It may be mentioned that transactions may directly be posted in the ledger accounts without recording them in the journal.

At the end of a particular accounting period, a trial balance is prepared in a separate sheet of prescribed form recording debit ledger balance, in the debit column and credit ledger balances in the credit money column.

Besides ledger balances, cash balance, and bank balance of cash book of that particular date are also included in the trial balance.

Thereafter the total of debit and credit money columns of a trial balance is calculated. The agreement of trial balance is the conclusive evidence of the accuracy of the ledger and trial balance.

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

The format for Preparing Trial Balance

A short description of the format of the trial balance is given below:

Preparing Trial Balance From Journal and Ledger

  1. Titles: In the middle of the format name of the company, the trial balance and date of preparation are written.
  2. Accounts serial number: In this column, the serial numbers of ledger accounts are written.
  3. Account Titles: The serial number of that account of the ledger which has been written in the first column, the full title of that account is written in this column. For example, Capital account, Furniture account, Cash account etc.
  4. Ledger Folio: The number of the ledger page from where ledger balances are brought is written in this column.
  5. Debit balance: All debit balances of ledger accounts are written in this column.
  6. Credit balance: All credit balances of ledger accounts are written in this column.

Ledger Account Balance and Trial Balance

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

Rules for recording debit ledger account balances and credit ledger account balances in debit money column and credit money column of trial balance in absence of ledger account:

Ledger account balances to be recorded in the debit money column Ledger account balances to be recorded in the credit money column
All assets
Land, building, leasehold property, machinery, furniture, investment, notes receivable, accounts receivable, cash, stock, goodwill, patents, trademarks, etc..
External liabilities
The loan, mortgage loan, accounts payable, notes payable, debenture, bank overdraft, etc..
All expenses
Wages expense, salary expense, supplies expense, advertisement expense, rent expense, repair expense, interest expense, commission expense, depreciation expense, bad debt expense, discount expense, Items for which payment is made: Owner’s goods withdrawal, merchandise purchase.
All Incomes
Rent revenue, discount income, interest income, apprenticeship premium income etc..
Prepaid expense
Prepaid insurance, prepaid rent, prepaid advertisement, salary advance etc..
Expense payable
Salaries payable, rent payable.
Accrued income
Interest on investment accrued, interest on bank balance accrued, interest accrued on notes receivable and accounts receivable.
Losses
Cash lost, goods lost etc.
Unearned income
Unearned rent, unearned premium, etc..
All types of reserves and provisions
General reserve, provision for doubtful debts. Provision for discount on accounts receivable, etc..
Other items
Sales return, reserve for, discount on accounts payable.
Other items
Purchase return, capital, bad debt recovered.

Important to remember:

  1. Opening cash and bank balance are not shown in the trial balance as these are included in closing cash and bank balances.
  2. Closing stock is not shown in the trial balance because this remains included with opening stock and purchase of the accounting year. But if opening stock and purchase remain absent in trial balance and the adjusted purchase is shown in the trial balance, in that case, the closing stock is shown in the debit money column of the trial balance.

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance (CONTINUE…)

PRACTICAL PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS

Record the following transactions in the Journal and post them into the ledger and prepare a Trial Balance

Problem-1:

Oct 1st : Neel started the business with a capital of 80,000
3rd : Bought goods from Karl on credit 20,000
4th : Sold goods to Tarl 25,000
5th : Cash purchases 25,000
7th : Cash sales 15,000
9th : Goods retuned to Karl 2,000
10th : Bought furniture for 15,000
11th : Cash paid to Karl 12,000
12th : Goods returned by Tarl 3,000
14th : Goods taken by Neel for personal use 3,000
15th : Cash received from Tarl 12,000
16th : Took loan from Parl 30,000
17th : Salary paid 5,000
18th : Bought stationery for 1,000
19th : Amount paid to Parl on loan account 18,000
20th : Interest received 4,000

Solution 

Journal in the books of Mr. Neel
for the period from Oct 1st, _5 to Oct 20th, _5
Date V/R
No.
Particulars L/F Amount
(Dr)
Amount
(Cr)
Oct 1st Cash a/c

To Capital a/c

Dr
80,000 80,000
[Being the amount received from Mr. Neel, the proprietor as his capital contribution vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
3rd Goods/stock a/c

To Karl a/c

Dr
20,000 20,000
[Being the value of stock purchased from Mr.Karl on credit vide bill no:___ dated:__]
4th Tarl a/c

To Goods/stock a/c

Dr
25,000 25,000
[Being the value of stock sold to Mr.Tarl on credit vide bill no:___ dated:__]
5th Goods/stock a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
25,000 25,000
[Being the value of stock purchased for cash vide bill no:___ dated:__]
7th Cash a/c

To Goods/stock a/c

Dr
15,000 15,000
[Being the value of stock sold for cash vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
9th Karl a/c

To Goods/stock a/c

Dr
2,000 2,000
[Being the value of stock returned to Mr.Karl vide bill no:___ dated:__]
10th Furniture a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
15,000 15,000
[Being the value of furniture purchased for cash from M/s ___vide bill no:___ dated:__]
11th Karl a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
12,000 12,000
[Being the amount paid to Mr. Karl vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
12th Goods/stock a/c

To Tarl a/c

Dr
3,000 3,000
[Being the value of stock returned by Mr.Tarl vide bill no:___ dated:__]
14th Drawings a/c

To Goods/stock a/c

Dr
3,000 3,000
[Being the amount of stock taken by Neel for Personal use vide bill no:___ dated:__]
15th Cash a/c

To Tarl a/c

Dr
12,000 12,000
[Being the amount received to Mr. Tarl vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
16th Cash a/c

To Loan from parl a/c

Dr
30,000 30,000
[Being the cash received from Mr. Parl as loan vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
17th Salaries a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
5,000 5,000
[Being the amount paid for Salaries vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
18th Stationery a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
1,000 1,000
[Being the value of Stationery purchased from M/s___ for cash vide bill no:___ dated:__]
19th Loan from parl a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
18,000 18,000
[Being the amount paid to Mr. Parl for repayment of loan vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
20th Cash a/c

To Interest a/c

Dr
4,000 4,000
[Being the interest received in cash from M/s ____vide voucher no:___ dated:__]

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting  (CONTINUE…)

General Ledger 
[Books of Mr. Neel]

Cash a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
01/10/_5
07/10/_5
15/10/_5
16/10/_5
20/10/_5
To Capital a/c
To Goods/stock a/c
To Tarl a/c
To Loan from parl a/c
To Interest a/c




80,000
15,000
12,000
30,000
4,000
05/10/_5
10/10/_5
11/10/_5
17/10/_5
18/10/_5
19/10/_5
31/10/_5
By Goods/stock a/c
By Furniture a/c
By Karl a/c
By Salaries a/c
By Stationery a/c
By Loan from parl a/c
By Balance c/d






25,000
15,000
12,000
5,000
1,000
18,000
65,000
tl 1,41,000 tl 1,41,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 65,000

 

Capital a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
31/10/_5 To Balance c/d 80,000 01/10/_5 By Cash a/c 80,000
tl 80,000 tl 80,000
01/11/_5 By Balance b/d 80,000

 

Goods/stock a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
03/10/_5
05/10/_5
12/10/_5
To Karl a/c
To Cash a/c
To Tarl a/c


20,000
25,000
3,000
04/10/_5
07/10/_5
09/10/_5
14/10/_5
31/10/_5
By Tarl a/c
By Cash a/c
By Karl a/c
By Drawings a/c
By Balance c/d




25,000
15,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
tl 48,000 tl 48,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 3,000

 

Karl a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
09/10/_5
11/10/_5
31/10/_5
To Goods/stock a/c
To Cash a/c
To Balance c/d


2,000
12,000
6,000
03/10/_5 By Goods/stock a/c 20,000
tl 20,000 tl 20,000
01/11/_5 By Balance b/d 6,000

 

Tarl a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
04/10/_5 To Goods/stock a/c 25,000 12/10/_5
15/10/_5
31/10/_5
By Goods/stock a/c
By Cash a/c
By Balance c/d


3,000
12,000
10,000
tl 25,000 tl 25,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 10,000

 

Furniture a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
10/10/_5 To Cash a/c 15,000 31/10/_5 By Balance c/d 15,000
tl 15,000 tl 15,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 15,000

 

Drawings a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
14/10/_5 To Goods/stock a/c 3,000 31/10/_5 By Balance c/d 3,000
tl 3,000 tl 3,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 3,000

 

Loan from parl a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
19/10/_5
31/10/_5
To Cash a/c
To Balance c/d

18,000
12,000
16/10/_5 By Cash a/c 30,000
tl 30,000 tl 30,000
01/11/_5 By Balance b/d 12,000

 

Salaries a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
17/10/_5 To Cash a/c 5,000 31/10/_5 By Balance c/d 5,000
tl 5,000 tl 5,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 5,000

 

Stationery a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
18/10/_5 To Cash a/c 1,000 31/10/_5 By Balance c/d 1,000
tl 1,000 tl 1,000
01/11/_5 To Balance b/d 1,000

 

Interest a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
31/10/_5 To Balance c/d 4,000 20/10/_5 By Cash a/c 4,000
tl 4,000 tl 4,000
01/11/_5 By Balance b/d 4,000

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

Trial Balance 
[Modern Method]

Trial Balance of Mr. Neel as on 31/10/_5
Particulars L/F Amount
(Dr)
Amount
(Cr)
Cash a/c
Capital a/c
Goods/stock a/c
Karl a/c
Tarl a/c
Furniture a/c
Drawings a/c
Loan from parl a/c
Salaries a/c
Stationery a/c
Interest a/c










65,000

3,000

10,000
15,000
3,000

5,000
1,000

80,000

6,000



12,000


4,000
Total 1,02,000 1,02,000

Problem – 2

Enter the following transactions in the Journal and post them into the ledger and from the information obtained prepare a Trail Balance.

Nov 10th : Mrs. Roy started business with 60,000
11th : Bought furniture from Modern Furniture for 10,000
12th : Purchased goods for cash 15,000
13th : Purchased goods from B. Sen & Co for 30,000
14th : Opened a bank account by depositing 16,000
16th : Sold goods for cash 15,000
17th : Purchased stationery for 1000 from Bharat Stationery Mart
18th : Sold goods to Zahir Khan for 10,000
19th : Bought machinery for 6,000 and payment made by cheque
20th : Goods returned by Zahir Khan for 2,000
21st : Payment to B.Sen & Co by cheque 5,000
22nd : Withdrew from bank for personal use 3,000
23rd : Interest paid through cheque 2,000
24th : Withdrew from bank for office expenses 10,000
26th : Cheque received from Zahir Khan 5,000
27th : Paid electricity bill for 100
29th : Cash sales for 6,000
30th : Commission received by cheque 5,000

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

Solution

Journal in the books of Mrs. Roy
for the period from Nov 10th, _5 to Nov 30th, _5
Date V/R
No.
Particulars L/F Amount
(Dr)
Amount
(Cr)
Nov 10th Cash a/c

To Capital a/c

Dr
60,000 60,000
[Being the amount received from Mr. Roy, the proprietor as his capital contribution vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
11th Furniture a/c

To Modern Furniture a/c

Dr
10,000 10,000
[Being the furniture purchased for credit from M/S Modern Furniture vide bill no:___ dated:__]
12th Purchases a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
15,000 15,000
[Being the value of goods purchased from M/s___ for cash vide bill no:___ dated:__]
13th Purchases a/c

To B.Sen & Co a/c

Dr
30,000 30,000
[Being the value of goods purchased for credit from M/S B.Sen & Co vide bill no:___ dated:__]
14th Bank a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
16,000 16,000
[Being the cash deposited into bank while opening a bank a/c no:___ dated:__]
16th Bank a/c

To Sales a/c

Dr
15,000 15,000
[Being the value of goods sold for cash vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
17th Stationery a/c

To Bharat Stationery Mart a/c

Dr
1,000 1,000
[Being the value of stationery purchased on credit from M/S Bharat Stationery Mart vide bill no:___ dated:__]
18th Zahir Khan a/c

To Sales a/c

Dr
10,000 10,000
[Being the value of goods sold on credit vide invoice no:___ dated:__]
19th Machinery a/c

To Bank a/c

Dr
6,000 6,000
[Being the value of machinery bought and payment made by cheque no:___ dated:__]
20th Sales Returns a/c

To Zahir Khan a/c

Dr
2,000 2,000
[Being the value of goods returned by Zahir Khan vide return bill no:___ dated:__]
21st B. Sen & Co a/c

To Bank a/c

Dr
5,000 5,000
[Being payment made by cheque vide cheque no:___ dated:__]
22nd Drawings a/c

To Bank a/c

Dr
3,000 3,000
[Being the amount withdraw from bank for personal use vide cheque no:___ dated:__]
23rd Interest a/c

To Bank a/c

Dr
2,000 2,000
[Being the amount of interest paid vide cheque no:___ dated:__]
24th Office Expenses a/c

To Bank a/c

Dr
10,000 10,000
[Being the amount withdraw from bank for office expenses vide cheque no : ___ and voucher no:___ dated:__]
26th Bank a/c

To Zahir Khan a/c

Dr
5,000 5,000
[Being cheque received from Zahir khan vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
27th Electrical Bill a/c

To Cash a/c

Dr
100 100
[Being the amount paid towards electricity bill vide voucher no:___ dated:__]
29th Cash a/c

To Sales a/c

Dr
6,000 6,000
[Being the value of sales made for cash vide receipt no:___ dated:__]
30th Bank a/c

To Commision Received a/c

Dr
5,000 5,000
[Being the amount of commission received by cheque vide voucher no:___ dated:__]

Topic: Journal, ledger, and Trial balance – Financial Accounting (CONTINUE…)

General Ledger 
[Books of Mrs. Roy]

Cash a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
10/11/_5
29/11/_5
To Capital a/c
To Sales a/c

60,000
6,000
12/11/_5
14/11/_5
27/11/_5
30/11/_5
By Purchases a/c
By Bank a/c
By Electrical Bill a/c
By Balance c/d



15,000
16,000
100
34,900
tl 66,000 tl 66,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 34,900

 

Capital a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 60,000 10/11/_5 By Cash a/c 60,000
tl 60,000 tl 60,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 60,000

 

Furniture a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
11/11/_5 To Modern Furniture a/c 10,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 10,000
tl 10,000 tl 10,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 10,000

 

Modern Furniture a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 10,000 11/11/_5 By Furniture a/c 10,000
tl 10,000 tl 10,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 10,000

 

Purchases a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
12/11/_5
13/11/_5
To Cash a/c
To B.Sen & Co a/c

15,000
30,000
30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 45,000
tl 45,000 tl 45,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 45,000

 

B.Sen & Co a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 30,000 13/11/_5 By Purchases a/c 30,000
tl 30,000 tl 30,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 30,000

 

Bank a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
14/11/_5
16/11/_5
26/11/_5
30/11/_5
To Cash a/c
To Sales a/c
To Zahir Khan a/c
To Commision Received a/c



16,000
15,000
5,000
5,000
19/11/_5
21/11/_5
22/11/_5
23/11/_5
24/11/_5
30/11/_5
By Machinery a/c
By B. Sen & Co a/c
By Drawings a/c
By Interest a/c
By Office Expenses a/c
By Balance c/d





6,000
5,000
3,000
2,000
10,000
15,000
tl 41,000 tl 41,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 15,000

 

Sales a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 31,000 16/11/_5
18/11/_5
29/11/_5
By Bank a/c
By Zahir Khan a/c
By Cash a/c


15,000
10,000
6,000
tl 31,000 tl 31,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 31,000

 

Stationery a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
17/11/_5 To Bharat Stationery Mart a/c 1,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 1,000
tl 1,000 tl 1,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 1,000

 

Bharat Stationery Mart a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 1,000 17/11/_5 By Stationery a/c 1,000
tl 1,000 tl 1,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 1,000

 

Zahir Khan a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
18/11/_5 To Sales a/c 10,000 20/11/_5
26/11/_5
30/11/_5
By Sales Returns a/c
By Bank a/c
By Balance c/d


2,000
5,000
3,000
tl 10,000 tl 10,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 3,000

 

Machinery a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
19/11/_5 To Bank a/c 6,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 6,000
tl 6,000 tl 6,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 6,000

 

Sales Returns a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
20/11/_5 To Zahir Khan a/c 2,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 2,000
tl 2,000 tl 2,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 2,000

 

B. Sen & Co a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
21/11/_5 To Bank a/c 5,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 5,000
tl 5,000 tl 5,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 5,000

 

Drawings a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
22/11/_5 To Bank a/c 3,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 3,000
tl 3,000 tl 3,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 3,000

 

Interest a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
23/11/_5 To Bank a/c 2,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 2,000
tl 2,000 tl 2,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 2,000

 

Office Expenses a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
24/11/_5 To Bank a/c 10,000 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 10,000
tl 10,000 tl 10,000
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 10,000

 

Electrical Bill a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
27/11/_5 To Cash a/c 100 30/11/_5 By Balance c/d 100
tl 100 tl 100
01/12/_5 To Balance b/d 100

 

Commision Received a/c
DrCr
Date Particulars J/F Amount Date Particulars J/F Amount
30/11/_5 To Balance c/d 5,000 30/11/_5 By Bank a/c 5,000
tl 5,000 tl 5,000
01/12/_5 By Balance b/d 5,000

Trial Balance
[Modern Method]

Trial Balance of Mrs. Roy as on 30/11/_5
Particulars L/F Amount
(Dr)
Amount
(Cr)
Cash a/c
Capital a/c
Furniture a/c
Modern Furniture a/c
Purchases a/c
B.Sen & Co a/c
Bank a/c
Sales a/c
Stationery a/c
Bharat Stationery Mart a/c
Zahir Khan a/c
Machinery a/c
Sales Returns a/c
B. Sen & Co a/c
Drawings a/c
Interest a/c
Office Expenses a/c
Electrical Bill a/c
Commision Received a/c


















34,900

10,000

45,000

15,000

1,000

3,000
6,000
2,000
5,000
3,000
2,000
10,000
100

60,000

10,000

30,000

31,000

1,000








5,000
Total 1,37,000 1,37,000