People Development and Environment MCQs – UGC NET Paper 1

Some important MCQs for NTA UGC NET Paper 1 Exam for the unit – 9: People Development and Environment is given below:

  1. Global warming during winter becomes more pronounced at the:

(A) Equator

(B) Poles

(C) Tropic of Cancer

(D) Tropic of Capricorn

Answer: D

The five major circles of latitude are, from north to south:

  • The Arctic Circle (66° 33′ 38″ N)
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 26′ 22″ N)
  • The Equator (0° latitude)
  • The Tropic of Capricorn (23° 26′ 22″ S)   Global warming during winter
  • The Antarctic Circle (66° 33′ 38″ S)

Tropic of Cancer at which the Sun appears directly perpendicular on June 21 in an event that is called Summer Solstice.

  1. In the study of man-environment interaction, the statement of Miss Semple that “the humans are solely the product of their environment”, is:

(A) An opinion

(B) A prejudice

(C) A fact

(D) A widely accepted phenomenon

Answer: C

  1. An analysis of the man-environment relationship Pragmatic Possibilism implies that:

(A) There is no limit for man to exploit resources of earth

(B) There are limited possibilities to explore earth’s resources

(C) The man has to watch and assess the situation and then go ahead with resource utilization

(D) The man has to keep in mind only his basic needs while planning to harness the potential of resourceful earth

Answer C

Pragmatism considers thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes.

The philosophy of pragmatism “emphasizes the practical application of ideas by acting on them to actually test them in human experiences”. Pragmatism focuses on a “changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists, Realists and Thomists had claimed”

  1. Arrange Column II in proper sequence so as to match it with Column I and choose the correct answer from the codes given below:

Column I                                Column II

Activity                                   Noise Level

(a) Hearing                              (i) 30 dB

(b) Whispering                        (ii) 1 dB

(c) Interference with sleep      (iii) 60 dB

(d) Normal talk                      (iv) 30–50 dB

Codes :

(a)   (b)   (c)    (d)

(A) (i)    (ii)  (iii)   (iv)

(B) (ii)   (i)   (iv)   (iii)

(C) (iv)  (ii)  (iii)   (i)

(D) (iii)  (i)   (ii)   (iv)

Answer: B

Sound is measured in units called decibels. Decibel levels begin at zero, which is near total silence and the softest sound the average young person can hear. By comparison, a whisper is 30 decibels and normal conversational speech is about 60 decibels. An increase of 10 decibels means that a sound is 10 times more powerful. The sound of an ambulance siren at 120 decibels is about 1 trillion times more intense than the weakest sound the average person can hear. Sounds that reach 120 decibels are painful to our ears at close distances and are dangerous to our hearing.
How loud is too loud?
The noise chart below lists average decibel levels for everyday sounds around you.
150 dBP = fireworks at 3 feet (impulse noise)
140 dBP = firearms (impulse noise)
140 dBA = jet engine
130 dBA = jackhammer
120 dBA = jet plane takeoff, siren
Extremely Loud
110 dBA = maximum output of some MP3 players, model airplane, chain saw
106 dBA = gas lawn mower, snowblower
100 dBA = hand drill, pneumatic drill
90 dBA = subway, passing motorcycle
Very Loud
80–90 dBA = blow-dryer, kitchen blender, food processor
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that workers in noisy environments 85 dBA or louder for an 8-hour workday limit their exposure at this loudness level.
Loud (safe for 24 hours or more) 
70 dB = busy traffic, vacuum cleaner, alarm clock
Moderate (safe for 24 hours or more)
60 dBA = typical conversation, dishwasher, clothes dryer
50 dBA = moderate rainfall
40 dBA = quiet room
Faint (safe for 24 hours or more)
30 dB = whisper, quiet library

  1. The maximum loss of forest lands in India is caused by:

(A) River valley projects

(B) Industries

(C) Means of transportation

(D) Agriculture
Answer: A

  1. Bitumen is obtained from

(A) Forests and Plants

(B) Kerosene oil

(C) Crude oil

(D) Underground mines

Answer: C

Bitumen is a mixture of dark, sticky, highly viscous organic liquids composed mainly of aromatic hydrocarbons. It is usually black or dark brown in color. Bitumen found in nature is known as crude bitumen, and that obtained by the distillation of crude oil is called refined bitumen. It is now possible to produce bitumen from non-petroleum based renewable resources such as sugar, molasses, or starch. Materials that contain bitumen are described as bituminous, such as bituminous coal and bituminous rock.

  1. Malaria is caused by:

(A) bacterial infection

(B) viral infection

(C) parasitic infection

(D) fungal infection

Answer: C

  1. The cloudy nights are warmer compared to clear nights (without clouds) during winter days. This is because:

(A) clouds radiate heat towards the earth

(B) clouds prevent the cold wave from the sky, descend on earth

(C) clouds prevent escaping of the heat radiation from the earth

(D) clouds being at great heights from earth absorb heat from the sun and send towards the earth

Answer: C

  1. Largest soil group of India is:

(A) Red soil

(B) Black soil

(C) Sandy soil

(D) Mountain soil

Answer C

Major classification of Indian soils

  • Alluvial soil [43%]
  • Red soil [18.5%]
  • Black / regur soil [15%]
  • Arid / desert soil
  • Laterite soil
  • Saline soil
  • Peaty / marshy soil
  • Forest soil
  • Sub-mountain soil
  • Snowfields

Alluvial soil:

  • Mostly available soil in India (about 43%) which covers an area of 143
  • Widespread in northern plains and river valleys.
  • In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries.
  • Humus, lime and organic matters are present.
  • Highly fertile.
  • Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain, Narmada-Tapi plain etc are examples.
  • They are depositional soil – transported and deposited by rivers, streams etc.
  • Sand content decreases from west to east of the country.
  • New alluvium is termed as Khadar and old alluvium is termed as Bhangar.
  • Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey.
  • Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay.
  • Rich in: potash
  • Poor in: phosphorous.
  • Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseed etc are cultivated mainly.

Red soil:

  • Seen mainly in low rainfall area.
  • Also known as Omnibus group.
  • Porous, friable structure.
  • Absence of lime, kankar (impure calcium carbonate).
  • Deficient in: lime, phosphate, manganese, nitrogen, humus and potash.
  • Colour: Red because of Ferric oxide. The lower layer is reddish yellow or yellow.
  • Texture: Sandy to clay and loamy.
  • Wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, potato, etc are cultivated.

Black soil/regur soil:

  • Regur means cotton – best soil for cotton cultivation.
  • Most of the Deccan is occupied by Black soil.
  • Mature soil.
  • High water-retaining capacity.
  • Swells and will become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
  • Self-plowing is a characteristic of the black soil as it develops wide cracks when dried.
  • Rich in: Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminum and magnesium.
  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and organic matter.
  • Colour: Deep black to light black.
  • Texture: Clayey.

Laterite soil:

  • Name from Latin word ‘Later’ which means Brick.
  • Become so soft when wet and so hard when dried.
  • In the areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
  • Formed as a result of high leaching.
  • Lime and silica will be leached away from the soil.
  • Organic matters of the soil will be removed fast by the bacteria as it is high temperature and humus will be taken quickly by the trees and other plants. Thus, humus content is low.
  • Rich in: Iron and Aluminum
  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Potash, Potassium, Lime, Humus
  • Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide.
  • Rice, Ragi, Sugarcane and Cashew nuts are cultivated mainly.

Desert / arid soil:

  • Seen under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions.
  • Deposited mainly by wind activities.
  • High salt content.
  • Lack of moisture and Humus.
  • Kankar or Impure Calcium carbonate content is high which restricts the infiltration of water.
  • Nitrogen is insufficient and Phosphate is normal.
  • Texture: Sandy
  • Colour: Red to Brown.

Peaty / marshy soil:

  • Areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity.
  • Growth of vegetation is very less.
  • A large quantity of dead organic matter/humus which makes the soil alkaline.
  • Heavy soil with black colour.

Forest soil:

  • Regions of high rainfall.
  • Humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic.

Mountain soil:

  • In the mountain regions of the country.
  • Immature soil with low humus and acidic.
  1. Main pollutant of the Indian coastal water is

(A) oil spill

(B) municipal sewage

(C) industrial effluents

(D) aerosols

Answer: C

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